### Palettes

Palettes provide access to preset templates. The following table contains a list of the palettes that you can use in Equation Editor.

Palette
Description
Arithmetic operators

This palette contains twelve operator symbols for adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and other commonly used math symbols.

Arrows symbols

The Arrows symbols palette contains fourteen arrow symbols.

Bars

The templates on this palette are used for creating expressions that have bars either under them or over them. The bars may be either single or double, and may be used to denote complex conjugates or closures of sets.

Embellishments and hats

Mathematical variables often have primes, hats, bars, and dots attached to them. These are sometimes known as diacriticals or accents, but in Equation Editor they are referred to as character embellishments. You create an embellishment of this type by choosing the corresponding icon in this palette. The embellishment will be attached to the character to the left of the insertion point.

Fences

The templates in this palette provide you with various ways of enclosing expressions between matching pairs of symbols called fences or delimiters. You can insert brackets, braces, and parentheses in your equations. All of these symbols will automatically expand to accommodate whatever they enclose, including multi-line expressions. You can change the fence overhang (the distance fences extend above and below the items they enclose) using the Spacing command on the Format menu.

This palette provides templates for creating fractions, radicals, and long-division layouts. You can insert square root and nth root templates from this palette.

Integrals

This palette provides templates for various kinds of integrals. There are twenty integral templates in all, including single integrals, line integrals, double integrals, and triple integrals, all with various combinations of limits.

Labeled arrows

Labeled arrows are created using the six templates in this palette. These templates can be used to describe convergence to a limit or some property of a function.

Logic operators

This palette provides eight symbols used for logical operators such as “therefore,” “not,” “for all,” and “there exists.”

Lowercase Greek

This palette contains icons for the entire lowercase Greek alphabet. You can also insert any Greek character by pressing Ctrl + G, followed by the corresponding English character.

Matrices

Column vectors, determinants, matrices, and other tabular layouts are all built using the templates on this palette. You can create three-element row and column vectors, 2×2 or 3×3 matrices, or variable-sized matrices. The first nine templates give you quick ways to create vectors and matrices with common sizes. The last three templates display the Matrix dialog box, where you can create a custom matrix or table.

Miscellaneous symbols

The Miscellaneous Symbols Palette contains various symbols that are either somewhat obscure or do not seem to fit in elsewhere, such as the symbols used to represent infinity, the imaginary part of a complex number, and right-angle perpendicular.

Products and Set operators

The templates in this palette provide templates for products, coproducts, and set-theoretic intersections and unions. The five templates in the first row are used to create products, and the corresponding five in the second row denote coproducts. These are both used in much the same way as summation templates. The ten templates in the next two rows are for creating unions and intersections of sequences of sets. Again, these templates behave much like summation and product templates.

Relational operators

This palette contains symbols that express various relationships between two quantities, most of which involve some notion of equality, inequality, or equivalence, such as “less than or equal to” or “greater than.”

Set characters

This palette contains twelve symbols used for Set Theory operations, including “element of,” “not an element of,” “union,” “intersection,” “empty set,” and “subset.”

Spaces and ellipses

This palette contains the alignment symbol, several spacing symbols, and ellipsis symbols (dots). To add space between characters, you can insert thin spaces, thick spaces, and other forms of spacing. You can also insert the alignment symbol, used to align multiple lines of equations. Ellipses are useful for constructing vectors and matrices.

Subscripts and superscripts

This palette provides templates for creating subscripts and superscripts, and allows expressions to be placed above and below one another in various other ways. By placing one template inside another, you can achieve multiple levels of subscripting and/or superscripting.

Summations

Various types of sums can be created using the five templates in this palette.

Uppercase Greek

This palette contains icons for the entire uppercase Greek alphabet. You can also insert any Greek character by pressing Ctrl + G, followed by the corres
ponding English character (hold down Shift to type the capital Greek letter).